Difference Between Matrix and Determinant

Vinod Kumar

Both matrix and determinants are the part of business mathematics. Both are useful for solving business problem. Both are helpful for calculation of each other. For calculation of inverse of matrix, we need to calculate the determinant. For calculating the value of 3X3 matrix or more matrix, we need to divide determinants in sub-matrix.  but there are many differences between matrix and determinants which we can explain in following points.

1. Matrix is the set of numbers which are covered by two brackets. Determinants is also set of numbers but it is covered by two bars.

2. It is not necessary that number of rows will be equal to the number of columns in matrix. But it is necessary that number of rows will be equal to the number of columns in determinant.

3.  Matrix can be used for adding, subtracting and multiplying the coefficients.  Determinant can be used for calculating the value of x,y and z with Cramer's Rule.

Labor Mix Variance

Vinod Kumar
This video is the part of cost accounting video lectures. We have taken the topic of labor mix variance under variance analysis chapter. I think this video will simplify your problems relating to this chapter.

Labor Variance

Vinod Kumar
This video is the part of cost accounting video lectures. We have taken the topic of labor variance under variance analysis chapter. I think this video will simplify your problems relating to this chapter.

Variable Overhead Variance

Vinod Kumar

This lecture is the part of Cost Accounting Lectures Series. In this lecture, we take the Variance Analysis Chapter and topic variable overhead variance. Variable overhead variance formula is little confusing for students. Actually, in this, we do not take standard variable overhead cost. But we take the product of actual production with standard rate of variable overhead per unit. After this, we compare it with actual overhead cost. Difference of both will be our variable overhead variance. It may positive or native. Positive variance will be favorable and negative will show the adverse variance.

Following is its formula

= Actual Production X standard Variable Overhead / standard working hours - Actual variable overhead


= Actual Output X Standard Rate of Variable Overhead Per Unit - Actual Variable Overhead Cost

How to Convert Input Tax to Output Tax in Tally

Vinod Kumar
 "Dear sir,
My name is mohammed shani, works in saudi arabia. My question is,  "How we can convert Input tax to output tax in tally?"  As you know both accounts are in one group "" taxes&Duties"" and I am totally puzzled.....

In a simple way of saying I have an out put tax amounts 1000 and I have to pay input tax as 750 . the balance amount, which is 250 I have to convert to output tax..Kindly advise me.

Mohammed shani palasser from Saudi arabia

Mohammed shani! If we pass the correct voucher entry of input vat with purchase of goods and output vat with sales. Tally will calculate automatically balance amount. In your word, it is the conversion of input tax to output tax. For getting this report, you need to go to display and then go to statutory reports. In statutory report, you have to open VAT report. In VAT report, you will see balance amount of tax which you have to pay.

Trial Balance Error and Rectification

Vinod Kumar
"Hi, I am Anas from Qatar. currently I am facing two problem in my new company as follows.
1- Trial balance error and it shows opening balance difference. how can I intercept the particular opening balances. how can I solve if it is not the opening balance mistake.
2- In the bank statement of March 2011, it shows a credit amount (increase) in the bank a/c (return of letter of guarantee after maturity);  but the bank balance is Nil in the previous balance sheet. so what is the way to pass the transaction to increase bank balance in company ledger?

Yours Respectfully
Thanks & regards

Anas from Qatar

Anas! 1.  Trial balance error shows the mathematical problem. No problem, there is difference in opening balance or any other balance. For its rectification, you need to check your journal, ledger accounts figure and balance. If one account will less or more, it will not be balanced in trial balance. So, trial balance error can be adjusted by passing rectify journal entry.

2. Letter of guarantee shows your obligation payment of debt of customer if customer of bank does not pay. Because it is returned to you after maturity, it means customer has paid his debt. So, bank has increased your balance which was under guarantee. If you will not increase your balance, it will be your mistake. Just go to voucher entry and debit bank account and credit fund under guarantee account.

What is RECL?

Vinod Kumar
RECL means reclaim. It is banking term. When you go to Bank ATM and fill any amount and it is not received by you but is deducted from your bank account. It is sure, you will feel shock to see the deduction in ATM receipt without receiving of that amount. At that time, if you send request of reclaiming and Bank returns same amount in your bank account by writing RECL. So, it means, it is your money which has been returned by bank.

How to Fill Ink in HP Cartridge

Vinod Kumar

Sometimes ago, I had no knowledge of filling or refilling the ink in hp cartridge. Recently, I went to my friend's cafe and learned his way to fill ink in HP Cartridge. In this, video, I have explained what my friend did.

My friend has more than 4 years experience re-filling ink cartridges at his Internet cafe.

Important Point to be remember :

If your cartridge is not working, please boil some water on heater and then wet your cartridge with this boil water for 4 to 5 minutes, after this, your cartridge life will be long.

Journal Entries of Impairment Loss

Vinod Kumar
 Gorilwa ltd has a loan receivable amounting to frws 3200000 that was due to be paid in one year's time. The effective and nominal interest of 8% in previous periods had been received in prompt time. At the end of the last year 31st December 2010, the client indicated financial difficulties and request not to pay the full interest for year ended 31december 2011 but pay a total of frws 3300000(including the principal of frw3200000) on 31st December 2011



KADHAFI MUDAHERANWA! Simple journal entry of impairment loss will be following.

Impairment Loss of Asset Account Dr. XXXXX

Asset Account Cr. XXXXX

Every loss will be debited, so, we have debited impairment loss. With this, our asset will decrease. So, we have credited asset account.

Because your debtor account will be 3456000 but not getting interest, we should send it to bad debts account instead of impairment loss because reason of decreasing our asset value due to the default of debtor not due to changing of market value. We can just pass following journal entry.

1.  Debtor Account Dr. 256000

Interest Receivable on loan Cr. 256000

2. Cash Account Dr. 3300000

Bad Debts Account Dr. 156000

Debtor Account Cr. 3456000

In income statement, this loss will be debited. In balance sheet, this loss is deducted from sundry debtors for loan.

Instrument Mutilated

Vinod Kumar

If you have sent your cheque for clearing and your cheque is rejected by writing the reason of objection of instrument mutilated, then it means that your cheque is raw-boned. Day before yesterday, I sent my cheque for collection. That day, machine in which I had to deposit was not operating good way. My cheque's receipt did not come. After this, when the worker drew, my cheque my cheque was torn by machine. So, the bank in which I had to get money reject my cheque by writing instrument mutilated.

A bank may choose to pay for the cheque if the below information is clearly visible:
1. Issuer Name (Account holders name)
2. Payee Name
3. Date
4. Amount (Both in numbers & words)
5. Signature of account  holder (should match bank records)

Tomorrow, I am going to bank and more I can explain after this.  If you have more information due to your experience, please comment

How to Add Google Custom Search to Wordpress

Vinod Kumar

There are two main benefits for adding google custom search in your wordpress self-hosting accounting.
1. You can give opportunity to your users to search two and more websites through your wordpress self-hosted site.

2. You can show sponsored ads in your google custom search result. This earned money, you can use for your projects.

Above both things are not possible in Wordpress search box. So, today, we do some hard work for changing the wp search box with GCS box. So, this time, we are ready to teach you the steps to add google custom search to wordpress. If you will know our following steps, it will be just 2 minutes work for you to change this.

Steps for Adding GCS to WP

1. Get Code of Google Custom Search Box and Result

For this, you need to go to your google custom search account. If you do not have any account, just search google custom search in google and then create. After this,  you need to get code of search box and result. Copy this and save it in your note pad.

2.  Create the Search Result Page in Wordpress

In second step, you need to create the search result page in wordpress by going to pages and then click add new. In this page, you have to paste the search result code which you have obtained from first step.

3. Install  UW CALS Google Custom Search Engine Plugin

Just go to your self-hosting wordpress account and then go to plugins. Go to new and search UW CALS Google Custom Search Engine. Install it.

4.  Add New Setting in UW CALS Google Custom Search Engine Plugin

Just go to settings of your wordpress account and then click UW CALS Google Custom Search. Add search engine unique id which you can find from search engine form. After this, click save changes  button.

5. Change The Search Form PHP File

For this, you need to go to appearance and then go to editor. Find Search form file. Click it and then delete its code and add code which you find first step. After this click update button.

Now you are ready to use google custom search in wordpress. If you want to change the size, please you can change the size by going to search form in editor  and then change the figure of size. I have written 25  size of my search box which you can see in above right side. You can also write go or other word instead of search by going to same place.

If you want to show more than one site and advertising, you need to change the setting of your google custom search account.  In its control panel, you will see site button and make money button. With these button, you can get above two benefits.

How to Clean CD Writer Lens

Vinod Kumar

To clean CD writer is easy work. But to open CD writer is technique. So, today, you will learn to clean cd writer lens in home with our following steps

1st Step : To Open the CD Writer

First of open the main nuts. Then open the lock. With this, your plate of CD writer will come outside. Then open the next lock according to the techniques which has been shown by Ashwani in above video. Turn your your CD writer back side.

2nd Step : To Clean the Lens

Lens is small glass. It is just like triple pen points. Clean it by taking some cotton or best is to use buds.  Take some petrol and wash this buds in it. Now clean the lens.  If there is more dust. Use second buds.

3rd Step : To Close the CD Writer

You should close the CD writer as per directed in above video.


How to Make Curry Chawal

Vinod Kumar
Curry chawal is one of best food which is eaten by Indians from Kashmir to Kaniakumari. If you do not know to make curry chawal, you can learn this from our following steps.

1st Step : To Make Curry

For making curry for 25 people, you need 600 grams gram-flour and 300 grams will be used for mixture grams-flour and curd 2 Kgs. For making mixture, we will use mixture machine. After mixing curd with grams-flour, we will boil it for 1 hour. Mix 4 spoon salt, 1 spoon haldi, 3 spoon red chilly.

2nd Step : To Make Pakore

Mix some water in 300 grms gram-flour. Keep refined oil 1 kgs on gas and then cook pakore and mix these pakore in curry.

3rd Step : To Make Chawal ( Boil Rice)

Boil 1 kgs chawal with 3 kgs water. After 15 minutes, chawal (Boil rice) will be ready for eating with curry.

Future Contract vs Forward Contract

Vinod Kumar
Dear sir, first of all thank you for this opportunity. My question is about hedging instrument.  What is the difference between future contract and forward contract?

KADHAFI from Rwanda (Africa)

Kadhafi! Both future contract and forward contract are simplify the contract. We know the contract is the agreement in which goods and services are provided on the basis of money consideration. But sometime, we see fluctuations in the market. It may be due to changing of prices or increase or decrease of quantity of goods or services. At that time both future contract and  forward contract will be helpful. But still following are basic difference between future contract and forward contract.

In future contract, one party buys the goods or service on today price but delivery will be completed in future date. If prices will increase, buyer will get profit from future contract because he will get right of delivery on the past contract price.

For example, today is 7/3/2012 and I contracted with a building material shop for 1000 bricks, today price is Rs. 4 per brick. I contracted for getting delivery on 17/3/2012 at same Rs. 4 per brick. For example, if the price of per brick will reach at Rs. 10 on 17/3/2012. I will pay just Rs. 4 per brick. On this basis, I will just pay Rs. 4000 instead of Rs. 10000. This is simple example of future contract. With this, I will get benefit of Rs. 6000.

In forward contract, buyer agrees to buy product in future date at today price but with the condition that he will sell same product on the price which is fixed today.  Actually, in forward contract nothing assets is exchanged but only profit and loss is exchanged.

 Very Good Example of Wikipedia for Learning Forward Contract
Suppose that Bob wants to buy a house a year from now. At the same time, suppose that Andy currently owns a $100,000 house that he wishes to sell a year from now. Both parties could enter into a forward contract with each other. Suppose that they both agree on the sale price in one year's time of $104,000 (more below on why the sale price should be this amount). Andy and Bob have entered into a forward contract. Bob, because he is buying the underlying, is said to have entered a long forward contract. Conversely, Andy will have the short forward contract.
At the end of one year, suppose that the current market valuation of Andy's house is $110,000. Then, because Andy is obliged to sell to Bob for only $104,000, Bob will make a profit of $6,000. To see why this is so, one needs only to recognize that Bob can buy from Andy for $104,000 and immediately sell to the market for $110,000. Bob has made the difference in profit. In contrast, Andy has made a potential loss of $6,000, and an actual profit of $4,000.

5 Tips for Success in Life

Vinod Kumar

Today, life is changing very fastly. In this time, it is very challenging for you to get success in your life. Whole world has converted in a market. Competition is in every field. So, to get success is not so easy. But, I can give some tips  which I got in my past experience. Following are these five tips for success in life.

1. Selfless Work

Selfless work is the first step of getting success in life.  If you day starts from selfless work, no one can stop you from getting success. But it is very sad, you day starts from getting all selfish needs. Me, my wife and my children is your life. You do all your work just for collection the material things. To collect basics things is good because we can not live without this. But when we started to collect useless things, at that time, our success may convert in our failure. Success demands your sacrifice. You can sacrifice, if you are doing selfless work. Otherwise, it will be difficult for you to sacrifice. You may also feel jealousy, if you see other person's success. Never waste your time in jealousy.

2. Difficulties are Great Education

If you are facing difficulties, you are getting education from it. If your thoughts are great and you think that time of these difficulties is very small, it is sure long time of difficulties will decrease and you will feel that it is just one hour. It is on your will power. If you did not face any difficulty, you will not get the taste of success. A person who bears in very very rich family can not think, how does a poor person earn small money. But to earn small money with hard work is big success, if poor person feels satisfaction in it. I remembered when I became teacher in a village which was about 25 kilometers from my own city. I went on my cycle. For this,  I operated my cycle 1 hours daily. I also used same cycle for returning from school. At the last pay, I succeeded to buy Rs. 2500 mobile handset. Still it is in my hand and after seeing it, I feel very happy that it was the gift of my success in my life. Because this hard work had changed my life. I always think that time of these difficulties is very low and soon, we will feel happiness.

3. Control on Brain

Duty of brain is to take decision. If any tragedy happens and you feel pain of this. Due to this, your brain does not take good decision and you can lose your success. At that time, you need to control your brain. Face tragedy with confidence and bravery.

4. Healthy Attitude

If you starts to learn the art of living life, you can get success in same life. One of basic back bone of art of living is healthy and positive attitude. All the sadness are from our past works in this life and in past life. So, we need not to cry. We need not to feel sad. Same time, we have to think positive. If there is the time of night, then there will be the time of day.

5. Faith in God

If want to see success one step from your current place, you have to faith in God. Will God give you gift, if you will start to faith in him. God has no time. God has no need of your appreciation. But it is our selfishness that we starts faith and pray for getting benefits from God. Remember, God is good judge, he will give punishment if you will do wrong but when you will start to faith in God, you can not do any wrong work. Without wrong work, your failure is not possible. It means your success will more near to you if you will faith in God.

Linear Programming Importance - Video

Vinod Kumar

In this lecture, I have include some basic points which show the importance of linear programming. These basic points have been taken from my past content, "Importance of Linear Programming" In future, I will make the video to explain importance of linear programming more deeply.

Linear Programming Simplex Method Part 1 to 4

Vinod Kumar
I have taught whole simplex method of linear programming from part one to part 9 step by step. In this page, I have included part 1 to 4. If you want to understand whole concept of simplex method, you need to study part 5 to part 9 video also.

Linear Programming - Simplex Method -  Part 1


Linear Programming - Simplex Method -  Part 2



Linear Programming - Simplex Method Part 3



Linear Programming - Simplex Method Part 4


Linear Programming - Simplex Method - Part 5 to Part 9

Vinod Kumar

Simplex method of linear programming is wonderful method for achieving the objective. We can easily find the quantity of two products whose production cost will be minimum and whose return will be maximum. If you come this page first time, please see also part 1 to part 4 videos.

BEP for Bidding a Chit

Vinod Kumar

Dear Sir,

I am paying an amout of Rs. 10000 Per month in a chit fund company. This is a 25 Months chit with an amount of Rs 2.5 Lakhs. 2% is the commision. In the 11 th month, I won the chit and received net amount of Rs 1.95 Lakhs. I would like to know whether I am profited of lost by bidding this chit. If so by how much amount.

Pls. let me know the factors to be considered while participating in bidding and lifting the chit. How to know BREAK EVEN POINT while bidding, considering normal bank interest rates. Can you pls. explain with calculations in detail with an example, assuming that I am an employee and will not invest in any business.

Thanks and regards.

D.  Sampath Kumar from India

D.  Sampath Kumar! First of all, I am telling BEP is using where you selling any product. If you want to know the scheme is profitable or not after comparing it from normal rate of interest. You should calculate ROI in this chit scheme and then compare it with normal interest on same amount.

First of All you have Find return on Chit Fund = 195000 -110,000

= Rs. 85000

Now, you have to find return with normal interest rate on the amount of  Rs. 1,10,000 and then compare.

But if you want to know the break even point basics. I can explain you in very simple words. Break even point is that point which gives amount of sales where we will get no profit no loss. At this point, our total revenue will equal to total cost. It means, if we calculate this point, we can survive our business. You can find the quantity of your sales where you will receive no profit and no loss.

Quantity of  sales BEP = Total fixed cost / sales price - variable cost price

Organisational Behavior

Vinod Kumar

"What is Organisational Behavior? What are its Elements? How it can Improved?

Shikha from India

Before learning organisation behavior, you should know about the organisation. Organisation is the group of peoples who are working for any mission. Organisation behavior is all these peoples activities. Actually to know the behavior of an organisation is the science. We uses management, sociology, psychology and HR for knowing the each employee's behavior.

To know the organisational behavior is very important because with this, we can improve the performance of project which we are doing. We can take the example of home organisation. If your brother, sister, wife, father and mother's behavior will be good, you can operate your home more easily. Business is also an organisation. Every employee is its brothers and sisters. So, we know, how do they interact with each other? How do they behave each other? If they will quarrel with each other, businessman may be in loss because all customers will not come after seeing their quarrel.

Elements of Organisational Behavior

There are lots or elements and factors which affect the organisational behavior.  From these factors, environment of working is very important. If environment of working will be good. Behavior will be good. For example, there are lots of employees are working but there is no facility of water. Employees will discuss on this matter. They will think that businessman is not caring the basic need of employees. Their efficiency will decrease. So, businessman should manage the water facility.

How to Improve Organisational Behavior 

1. Through Motivation

Motivation is big power to improve organisation behavior. There is big need of a good leader who gives the direction to employees. There should be the quality of hero-ship in the leader. Employees will treat him as their here. They obey his order.

2. Incentive 

More you will give incentive to your employees, more your organisational behavior will be good. Incentive will be in the form of money and also in other things. For example, you can give incentive in the form of free education to the children of employees.

3. Informal Organization

Informal organisation is also great tool for improving organisational behavior. You should give sometime to employees to talk with each other freely.

Magnitude of a Vector

Vinod Kumar

This video is my try to simplify the concept of magnitude of a vector. In this video lecture, you will understand the meaning of magnitude of a vector and you will also know the steps to find the magnitude of a vector.

Meaning of Magnitude of a Vector

Magnitude of a vector means size or length of a vector.

Steps to Find the Value of Magnitude of a Vector

1st step : Draw a diagram and showing the component values of initial and terminal points of a vector.

2nd Step : Find the value of opposite and base ( These values will also component value)

3rd Step : Use the formula of magnitude of a vector

= Square root of { (opposite's power 2 ) + (Base's power 2 ) }

Multiplication of Vectors

Vinod Kumar

There are three methods of multiplication of vectors. Both algebra and geometric is able to calculate the value of the product of vectors. First method is dot product, second method is cross product and third method is triple product. Actually triple product is the mixture of dot product and cross product.